Magnetic Air-Spray Ion Generators As The Means Of Forming Rain Clouds
The below information is an extract from Prof. Yuri Tkachenko's thesis at the International Symposium "Sustainable Management of Salt Affected Soils in the Arid Ecosystem" held in Cairo, Egypt on September 26, 1996.
When talking about magnetic aerosol fountains it implies any systems that throw water in the air in a forced manner. Those include large and famous fountains in Geneva, Saudi Arabia and Sharjah, U.A.E. with the height of water spout beyond 100 m as well as normal fountains which can be found nearly in any town to say nothing of tiny sprays which derive from diverse irrigation water sprinklers. Therefore, millions of wee fountains turn into mighty generators that ionize the atmospheric air provided special magnetic equipment is strapped on water feed pipe.
At this point, it will be respectable to mention a few words about atmospheric water. A clear cloudless sky is truly a colossal storehouse for huge supplies of fresh water. This water is distributed over different atmospheric layers. However, the bulk of the water (even above arid desert areas) accounts for troposphere, which is at the bottom of the atmosphere next to earth.
The atmosphere draws the water chiefly from the ocean's surface. An average of 520,000km3 of water will evaporate from the planet surface annually. This volume can be put on a par with that of the Black Sea, which has an average depth of 1.2 km. It takes just one year for a hydrological cycle equal to 5.2 x 1014! to complete within the range of earth atmosphere. The moisture in the air is changed 40 times a year, i.e. once every other 9 days.
To come back to earth the atmospheric water vapor will release its potential energy. Nevertheless, before that happens the vapor condenses to liquid drops of water or transforms into minuscule ice crystals. It forms clouds, fogs and then makes rain. For the atmospheric water to do this job the following two conditions should be met. One of them is obligatory whilst the other is advisable. It is mandatory that the temperature go down to the point when the air is utterly saturated with the water vapor and it is desirable that the air have the hubs wherein the vapor is condensed to a liquid drop condition or minute ice crystals. As a rule, the earth atmosphere and, in particular, within the limits of troposphere contains sufficient dust particles of organic and inorganic nature, which will precipitate condensation.
Oddly enough, it is a mistake to preach common knowledge that the atmospheric vapors are supposedly a distillate. According to reliable scientific findings the atmospheric water conversely holds a great deal of numerous chemicals. There is also scientific evidence of the fact that magnetized water will radically alter and accelerate physical and chemical transformations.
Now we have come close to the point when we can talk about nimbus formation which involves magnetic technologies and magnetic systems. As has been mentioned before engineering spray-assisted irrigation works serve as powerful generators, which contribute to ionization of the atmospheric air. This is likely to cause dramatic changes in the electric balance of the atmospheric layers. To crown it all, such streams of ions have a magnetic basis that makes it possible to speed up coagulation (the process of tiny particles sticking together and forming clusters) by many times over in the atmospheric convection. Cloudiness that is out of the question under usual circumstances in arid climatic conditions becomes a reality once magnetic air-spray ion generators are put into operation there.
It is quite natural for us to raise a question "How does it happen?"
The answer for this question would be as follows.
It all happens because of tiny water drops, which form near waterfalls and fountains and carry a negative electrical charge. It's not by chance that the present-day medicine has set up a whole branch, which is called electrotherapy. Do people know that these tiny water drops or other particles with a negative electrical charge are the main means of this "electrotherapy"?
Fig. 1. Mini-drop with a negative charge creates electrical field around it.
Let us call these small water drops with a negative charge mini-drops (Fig. 1). It is amazing that these mini-drops are one of the major factors of cloud- and rain formation. Furthermore, we can create an extremely healthy and curative microclimate in our villa or big farm by using these mini-drops, and we can also provoke clouds and rain. These would be manmade clouds and rain, created by knowledge, human activities and Mother Nature. Why Mother Nature? We'll see further, that our success and intentions would very much depend on strength and direction of winds, place and area of distributing of ascending and descending air flows, and also on temperature in the lower atmosphere layers and its changes. But should Mother Nature send us still and quiet weather down, then we'll gain success. Using electricity and magnetic treatment, we will be able to create not only a cloud but real rain.
A question comes "How?" Before you understand, you do not want to believe! At present we can say for sure, that the simplest and at the same time the most useful method of getting drops-formation effect with negative electrical charges in cities, villas are fountains; in farms and other agricultural plots - systems of spray- irrigation. In science the phenomenon of negatively charged water drops was called ballo-electrical effect (Fig.2).
Fig. 2. Any water spraying unit is a factor for producing ballo- electrical effect.
We would like to draw our readers' attention to the point how ballo-electrical effect arises, i.e. how mini-drops around waterfalls, fountains, etc. acquire a negative charge (Fig. 2).
First, we have to keep in mind that formation of negatively charged drops is a natural process and it happens any time when water is sprayed. By magnetizing water we simply intensify the process several times.
We create an enormous number of big and small drops by any spraying of water, either through fountains or through an operational spray-unit or just splashing water by hand. The whole process, which is of interest to us, happens when a drop falls down on the ground. Before we consider the process of falling of one drop, which is "guilty" of arising effect, we would mention that composition of any substance contains a certain number of electrons, omnipresent and tiniest among elementary micro-particles, carrying negative electrical charge.
Electrons do not only constitute electronic orbits of atoms of all substances, present in the Universe, but are also included into a substance as free, moving back and forth. Speed of these "walks" depends on temperature. The higher the temperature, the higher the speed of their "back and forth" free movement. In science it is called chaotic movement. In nature the greatest number of the so-called free electrons is in metals, the least number is in substances, called electrical insulators. As per this value, water occupies a middle position.
Fig. 3. a) Form of a falling "big" drop prior to formation of a mini-drop b) Distribution of negative charges on the surface of "big" drops prior to mini-drops tearing off
Let us get back to our hero - a drop (Fig. 3), which falls down. Specially made shootings show that a falling drop forms a pear with a tail. The thick part of this pear is pointed downward and the narrow part with a tail is in the upper portion. As the drop falls, small droplets (let us call them droplets) tear off from the tail; size of these droplets is dozens and even hundreds times smaller than that of a big drop. This mini-droplet, torn off from the big drop, takes away a part of electrons (charge), which was on the big drop. Electrons, present in any subject, are not distributed evenly in the subject's volume. They try to distribute themselves on the subject's surface proportionally to the angle of the surface; thus, their number in acute angles and convexities will be much higher than on the surface. Their number will be especially large at the end of extremely sharp objects, i.e. a needle. Such electrons' behavior refers to a big drop in a full extent. So, extremely large number of electrons, present in this drop, will gather on the tail of a big drop. Their number will be especially large just before the mini-droplet's tearing off, as the "tail" is very thin and sharp at this time. Thus, a mini-droplet, tearing off from the big drop, takes a significant part of the big drop's negative charge with it. Formation of a mini-droplet out of a big drop happens many times while the big drop is reaching the ground. The matter is, that a big drop, falling down, can acquire a lot of "medium" or mini-droplets, which had torn off from previous big drops. Medium drops and mini-droplets, having a less velocity of falling, will be absorbed by a big drop on their way and will give it their mass and charge. A big drop, increased in volume, will become even bigger and due to that it forms a tail and can extract a negatively charged mini-droplet. This process can recur several times.
How many times? It depends upon the height from which it falls and how many medium and small droplets it will meet on its way down to the ground. Let's get back to the source of drops, i.e. a fountain. If a fountain produces one million drops per second, it becomes clear that this million can create several million of charged mini-droplets.
A question arises at this stage "What's next? What will be the fate and life of these million and maybe even billions of mini-droplets, which have just been born?"
Let us recollect two facts from corresponding sections of physics in order to answer these questions.
First, surface of our native Earth is also negatively charged as our mini-droplet is. It's quite possible that it happens because free electrons, present in the volume of Earth, try to distribute themselves precisely on the surface of our planet. We have already mentioned that free electrons "like" to settle on the surface of subjects. It is also known that unipolar charges repulse from one another. Consequently, our mini-droplet with the same polarity like Earth's surface will repulse from it, i.e. go upwards. Although a mini-droplet has weight, inter-charge repulsing forces at the earlier stage, i.e. at the moment of mini-droplets formation, exceed the force of gravity many times and these forces push them upwards.
Secondly, let us remember a molecule's structure. It consists of one molecule of oxygen with a negative charge, placed from one side and two hydrogen atoms with a positive charge on the other side. Physicists call such system with negative and positive charges electrical dipole. This electrical dipole has its "favorite" habits. It does not "like" being alone. If there is any charge not far away ("not far away" refers to comparison to size of the electrical dipole itself), disregard of this neighboring charge's polarity, it immediately turns to the charge and sticks to it with its opposite pole (Fig. 4). Why with an opposite pole? Because in this case poles will be unlike and, as is known, subjects, charged with unlike poles, attract each other. Water molecules turn with their positive pole to the nearest mini-drop, which has a negative charge, and stick to it (Fig. 4).
Fig. 4. Water molecules stick to a mini-drop with the positive poles
But, gradually, along with the mini-drop's going upward, it will be surrounded by several layers of water molecules or associations of several molecules (Fig. 5).
Fig. 5. Large number of water molecules stick to the mini-drop as it rises upward
Let's get back to negatively charged mini-droplets, which rise upward.
A natural question comes "Up to what height do they rise?" Increasing number of water molecules or molecule associations, containing dozens and more of single molecules, "stick" to every negatively charged mini-drop along its way up. These bodies, electrical dipoles, which have positive polarity as its side, stick to the mini- drop.
The mini-drop becomes heavier and heavier, on one side, and, on the other side, the total electrical field on its surface will get weaker and weaker. It happens because every molecule or a small molecule association, stuck to a mini-drop, decreases its negative charge by some part. Due to these causes speed of drop's moving up will decrease. The time will come, when forces of charges' repulsion of Earth's surface become equal to the force of gravity, applied to a mini-drop's weight. Then the mini-drop will stop. The height, at which mini-drops stop will almost totally depend upon the air humidity and temperature. If the air is humid and cold, they will not rise high, but they can go very high if the air is dry and hot.
Besides the aforesaid mechanism of cloud formation there is one more, which arises at any type of irrigation, and it is specially intense at spray- irrigation. It is connected with decrease of temperature in the irrigated zone. The matter is, that level of evaporation is specially high at spray-irrigation. As is known, evaporation process is connected with absorbing large amount of heat (not less than 530 cal per gram) and it consequently leads to decreasing temperature in the irrigated area.
Cold air is more dense than hot and this increase of density happens due to decrease of the air and humidity volume in the irrigated area. Such decrease of the environment volume in a certain area provokes flow of hot and dry air to the center of the zone and rising of humid air from the side parts. At some height the electrified flow will join the general flow and they will start rising together.
It should be specially noted that the described situation takes place when the weather is still. Presence of general ascending or descending air flows changes the whole process substantially, but the tendency is kept the same.
Billions of mini-drops, stopping at a certain height, occupy a certain volume, i.e. form a cloud (Fig. 6). The lower side of this cloud is more positive then the upper one, which is more negative. It happens due to the fact that redistribution of charges takes place inside such a cloud (it can be easily explained, but there is no need to concentrate our attention on this now). Residual charge of billions of mini- drops, summing up, forms a very strong electrical field; potential of this field can equal to million of volts. This field, as a single huge charge, will attract water molecules and small associations in the same way a magnet attracts iron subjects. Mechanism of processes is similar to that in mini-drops. The difference is only in scales. If an attracting action of a separate mini-drop distributes for not more than millimeters, the action of our artificially created, but charged, cloud will cover many kilometers.
Fig. 6. As the result, an electrically charged cloud forms, which attract humidity from far distances (up to 3-4 km)
Let us discuss, very briefly, the role of magnetic treatment of water in this case.
Without magnetic treatment all processes, which we considered before, will undoubtedly take place, but their intensity would be much lower. The explanation is as follows. If we do not magnetize water initially, number of charge carriers, i.e. electrons, will not be large in big drops, which fall off from the general amount of water. That is why mini-drops carry such little charges. Their charge's value will not be enough for rising up to the required height. The total electrical field, created by many billions of drops will not be sufficient for attracting moisture from far distances.
Initial magnetic treatment of water will increase mini-drops' charges many times (not less than 8-10 times) and, correspondingly, charge of the whole cloud, which we create. As a result, such cloud can rise up to the required height and create electrical field, strong enough to attract moisture from far distances.
Let us consider the following issues:
- How high should a cloud be raised?
- What should size of the cloud be?
- What electrical potential would be on the cloud's surface to enable it to create rain?
Height of the artificial cloud's positioning depends on air temperature, where mini-drops are formed. It's well-known that air temperature should not exceed 25-26°C (at the cloud's height) for the rain to start. It is also known that air temperature decreases by 5-6°C with rising by every 1000 meters. If the air temperature is 45°C in the place of spray-irrigation, which is the source of an artificial cloud, then our cloud should be raised by 4000 meters. This is an unfavourable height, as the artificial cloud scatters, when lifted so high, and loses its integrity and, consequently, it will lose its total electrical charge and the capacity of a rain cloud. As per our calculations, the most favorable height for an artificial cloud should be 1000-1500 meters. Air temperature at the day surface should not exceed 32-35°C.
Mean Annual Rainfall
Over the last three years alone Dubai and abutting areas have seen a 146% increase in rainfalls as opposed to the previous 30 years of monitoring. At the same time atmospheric precipitations have gone up by 178% in the concentration hubs where the farms have been equipped with magnetic systems. Magnetic systems were installed on a total area of 81000 km2. Average rainfall per annum before 1997 without the equipment ran to 113.1 mm. However following installation of magnetic systems (1995-1997) the amount of rain has scaled up to 238.4 mm. Thus, there has been an increase in mean yearly rainfall by 125.3 mm, i.e. by 2.1 times. The diagram below shows the spread of average annual rainfall across the areas fitted with magnetic systems designed by Magnetic Technologies LLC.
How Much Is Magnetic Rain?
Magnetic Technologies L.L.C. has installed more than 300 magnetic systems on water pipes of villas and farms on a total area of 8,100 sq. km. The devices were mounted to improve qualitative properties and biological activity of the water, desalinate the soil, increase harvest yield, and reduce the vegetative period of plants.
Irrigation of agricultural crops for the above-mentioned effects will also produce a marginal result. Once a well-weighed and serious approach is displayed, it may become a free derivative for better environment and arrangements to supply water to arid regions of this country.
Scientists of Magnetic Technologies worked closely with their counterparts from Cairo University on the account of expert assessment of increased rainfalls recorded in the United Arab Emirates over 1995-1997. The evaluation process was based on official statistics provided by UAE meteorological centers. It was found that this country had seen mean annual rainfall of 113.1 mm and 238.4 mm before 1994 and during 1995-1997 respectively. Overall, the rainfall annual figures have gone up by 125.4 mm which is tantamount to additional 1,015,000,0001 of water every year.
Below follows an economic evaluation of these huge supplies of fresh water.
For the sake of comparison let us have a look at the Dubai desalination plant which produces 120,000 t of fresh water per day with annual production capacity of 44 min t. Hence it follows that at least 23 plants of the same caliber will be required to make the 1,015,000,000 t of fresh water available. It is estimated that capital expenditure to be incurred by relevant construction projects including ramified networks of utility conduits and operational expenses would have run into trillions of dollars. However, it would have been impossible at any rate to generate the said amount of fresh water supplies even if the required funds could be a reality in this country. The projected expenses would have involved the value equivalent of 14 min t of oil products for these imaginable plants per annum. This nearly equals to the level of 6-month petroleum production in this country at large. It is also important that an ecological problem be taken into account. In fact, when burned such quantities of fuel would release an extra 150,500 t of CO and 2,344,300 t of CO2 every year.
These calculations have been drawn for one year alone. Nonetheless, our systems have been operating for 3 years now and, consequently, this country has benefited in the form of3bnt of fresh water. Likewise, both economic and ecological effects are to experience a 3-fold increase as well.
Magnetic systems have been installed to cover a total area of 8,100 km2 which accounts for 1/11 of the territory occupied by the United Arab Emirates. Introduction of magnetic technologies all across the country would have created a chance to provide fresh water to arid spots and could be regarded as the most reasonable and economically beneficial for the time being. Incidentally, flora and fauna of the UAE are likely to take a drastic turn for the better in 5-10 years to come, which is a very short period. The rainfall will, at least, double or triple and will cause a drop in the average temperature. This time will see actual fresh water lakes and rivers that will give a tremendous impetus to the growth of plants and wildlife alike.
In previous chapters we studied various advantages of application of magnetic air-spray ion generators in different fields of our life.
Below you will find technical data and some variants of execution of magnetic air-spray ion generators.
We hope that our offer would enjoy wide interest at solving economic and environmental problems. Numerous installations of magnetic air-spray ion generators should become norm of life.
Choosing relief area
In the previous chapters, we were looking at possibilities of using irrigation systems, equipped with magnetic generators, as one of the factors that influence processes of formation of the atmospheric electricity balance.
Taking into a consideration that our ideas are not always sufficiently supported, we will discuss in more detail, places where magnetic generators can be installed, only when rain cloud formation can, and should become a process, which can be controlled by man.
In this case, it is essential to learn everything about winds in the chosen area, type of head winds at different heights, temperature of head winds and, most importantly, choose and exact place for installation of magnetic generators. For example, city of Al Ain, UAE is located on the foot of a mountain, Hafit. The height of this mountain is 432 m. Wind direction from 12 noon to 5 p. m. is north-east (wind blowing from Hafit mountain to Al Ain). Next to the mountains foot, is a few hot water springs with temperatures of approx. 70°C. Average temperature during spring, summer and autumn ranges from 30-45°C. In this case, installation of magnetic generators on different levels of Hafit Mountain, will considerably decrease temperature around the area by approx. 5-7°C, at each level. Considering the fact that the difference of temperatures between the top and the bottom of the mountain is 4-5°C, overall decrease in temperature will be around 15-20°C. At the same time, magnetic generators that are installed at mountain's foot, will act as evaporators-ionizators in the region of hot water springs. This will create an additional effect of "steam bath". Rising upwards, negatively charged upper part of the steam will meet a positively charged cold steam coming from magnetic generators (that are installed on the top of a mountain). This will create a strong electro- static electricity, which will create coagulation of small water drops located in the surrounding masses of the atmospheric air. This will be enough to create a process, which can be controlled, of creating rain clouds. In addition, knowing wind direction and its speed, as well as, time necessary for drop formation and collection of full cloud mass, we can accurately make a prognosis of an exact place of the rain fall, and considering this, build collecting lakes in that area.
View of the desert from the top of Hafit mountain. According to the author, after installation of magnetic generators, desert turned into a blooming garden. Valley at the bottom of Hafit mountain with hot springs, where magnetic generators-evaporators should be installed.
Magnetic cloud over Dubai, formed in the area of action of magnetic generators.
We have a photo-archive, which is based on pictures that were taken daily for three years. These pictures show the process of cloud formation in the region of action of magnetic generators.
Practical Steps For Creation Of Water Storage Systems
Being armed with quite compelling figures pursuant to the previous chapters we feel confident to ascertain a necessity of large-scale efforts aimed at setting up a water accumulation network or water reservoirs in this country. It is important that the UAE enjoys a favorable geographical position. The country has rather lengthy borderline, which stretches alongside the foot of mountain ranges as well as advantageous natural relief with the terrain sloping from these mountains down to the Arabian Gulf. All those factors will make it possible to apply gravity throughout the reservoir network to feed the water to end-users.
Nature has designed big mountains to collect rainwater with subsequent overflow disposal to certain gorges. This makes it easier to collect the accumulated water by special and simple devices - locators. This rainwater will further follow to large man-made lakes (10 mln t and above) to be created with assistance of natural terrain conditions. The network of meres at the foot of mountains will serve as a foundation for a single water reservoir system. Fig. 7 presents a layout sketch for the lakes in question from the foot of mountains all the way down to the terminus - consumers and farms.
Fig. 7. Common water reservoir system
When completed this system will embody a mutually closed circuit with the water level in individual storage lakes being adjusted by automated lock chambers. The locks will subsequently fill up appropriate lakes when required.
The network of storage lakes will be composed of three diverse subsystems.
1. Large storage lakes. Designed to maintain major water balance in low-level storage ponds.
2. Territorial distribution and storage lakes. Intended source of water for adjacent farms as well as replenishment of smaller storage ponds according to the pattern of "necklace" system. The lakeside will serve as a venue for elite clubs or private ritzy estates. Incidentally, the lakes incorporated into the "necklace" system will have running water with overflow to subsequent lower level territorial lakes down the line.
Fig. 8. Displays how this system functions
3.Popular recreational lakes. It is expedient that leisure facilities be arranged along the shoreline. It will include public parks, camping sites, restaurants, amusement parks, etc. A couple of such lakes positioned in picturesque crannies of the UAE could immensely promote tourism and attract swarms of visitors to this unique region. The water will follow from these lakes to multistage territorial storage tanks arranged in a level order.
Plants And Wildlife In Ponds
Flora and fauna residing in lakes play a pivotal role in creation of micro-climate and naturalization of man-made lakes and canals. Towards this end, it is expedient that diversified species of agricultural crops including waterweeds should be planted along the lakeshores. The weeds such as reeds, lotuses, and water lilies will, first and foremost, contribute to a drastic reduction of evaporation from the pond's surface and will impart a natural life environment and saturate the air with oxygen. These ponds will become a stopover point for migratory birds which, consequently, makes it reasonable to have some rare fish and mollusks there that can work as original biological filters.
Such a complex approach would lay down the groundwork for breeding marketable fish: stellate sturgeon, sturgeon and white sturgeon (beluga) which produce valuable black caviar, just to name a few.
Rainwater On Road Surface
It is advisable that rainwater be collected across vast network of motorways and city streets, which will work as original and essential rainwater storage tanks when it rains. For cities, this should become a necessary measure as water- logged thoroughfares pose a threat to the traffic. These efforts are also likely to tackle two problems for highways out of city boundaries. It will secure traffic safety and collection of the rain water from natural ravines and ditches that stretch alongside the roads meandering deep into the outback of the United Arab Emirates.
For illustration, let us consider a separate length of road 1 km long and 10m wide. Even such a short highway section is capable of accumulating 1,000 t of good fresh water in the wake of an average rainfall of 10 mm. The stretch alone will fetch 250,000-300,000 t of water within a year.
Following some treatment, this water will become a reliable irrigation source for farms. It is noteworthy that there will be further changes in rainfall over particular areas as the project makes some headway with more storage lakes. This is to happen due to several reasons. First, the water accumulated in storage facilities and all the lakes will be subjected to magnetic treatment at an early stage. Second, newly formed farms shall be equipped with special magnetic generators that can create nimbus clouds.
Economical Effects For Privately-Owned Farms And Municipal Holdings
- Magnetic technologies will secure the following benefits: Clear-cut growth acceleration of agricultural crops.
- Reduction in morbidity rate of crops.
- Yield increase by 30-60% or more depending on types of agricultural crops.
- Besides, magnetic irrigation will have an exclusively favorable impact on human body and, by and large, positive effects on an ecological situation within city limits.
In closing, large-scale introduction of magnetic technologies should cause general changes in mean monthly temperature, a significant rise in rainfall; this means more rain for the entire country. In the final analysis, it will bring additional natural freshwater lakes and rivers into existence.
Calculation costs for one water reservoir of 10 min t will average 30,000,000 $ US. This involves earth moving works, construction of special systems to locate rainwater, lock chambers, observation stations to control pond condition, green beautification efforts as well as installation of magnetic systems.
Connection canals between storage lakes including earth moving, greenery and magnetic equipment are estimated at l,000,000 $US per square km. This water reservoir together with its conduit system will be in the position to supply irrigation water non-stop to 1,000 farms 2 hectares each for one year running.
Given common state water system along the line Ras Al Khaimah - Dhaid - Hatta - Al Ain with access to Abu Dhabi and commissioning of 50,000 brand-new farms there with complete maintenance of fresh water supplies, the projected expenses are expected to amount to US $l,700,000,000
Mindful of the fact that total strategic rations of water in the reservoirs will form 500,000 t, the program financing may be taken in stages as construction moves on.
For successful implementation of the proposal at large it is required to undertake the following efforts:
- Fit irrigation spray networks on all islands in Abu Dhabi waters with magnetic systems. Irrigation of agricultural crops shall be seen as a primary condition for generation of rain clouds.
- Equip the city irrigation system with magnetic devices.
- Run publicity on a regular basis in mass media of this country with emphasis on benefits of magnetic systems for private farms. Estimated length of program before completion - 5 years.
- Different variants of application of magnetic generators
Types and Sizes of Magnetic Air-Spray Ion Generators
|Model||Capacity, t/hr||Power Confirmation kW/hr|
|MI- 20||* 20||15.5|